100% Focused on Cider
Specifically formulated for cider.
Cider Certainity with Fermaid C
Fermaid C™ is a blend complex yeast nutrient suitable for the alcoholic fermentation of apple and pear juice.
In all alcohol fermentations yeast growth must occur before alcoholic fermentation can begin. In most applications, the usual inoculation rate is 30 grams per hectoliter (300 ppm or 2.5 pounds/1,000 gallons) which results in an initial cell concentration of 3 to 4 million viable yeast cells per milliliter of juice. Under normal conditions for virtually all types of fermentation media the cell population will increase to 100 to 150 million viable yeast cells/milliliter before growth stops and alcohol fermentation takes over.
Fermaid C™ helps this maximum yeast cell density get through to the stationary phase and complete alcohol fermentation as quickly and as efficiently as possible, especially under limiting available nitrogen conditions. By neglecting to follow a proper nutrition and aeration strategy, the time to complete fermentations can drag out and may take days and even weeks to complete. Sluggish fermentations occupy much needed tank space for prolonged periods and, more importantly, they create conditions that allow the proliferation of wild yeasts and bacteria.
Healthy yeast fermentation will take preferential priority over a bacterial spoilage growth and will have a reduced SO2 requirement. To facilitate the efficient and rapid finish to the fermentation, Fermaid C™ supplements a series of important nutrients and bio-factors.
Cider fermentation - CO2 production during fermentation with DAP versus Fermaid C™ with equivalent YAN (200 gr sugar, pH 3.6, initial YAN 50 ppm) Nutrient addition at t=0.
Fermaid C™ ensures an efficient and complete cider fermentations - the more CO2 produced, the more active the fermentation.
During the stationary phase of the fermentation, a yeast cell benefits from consuming nitrogen to maintain a healthy metabolism. Under limiting yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) conditions below 125 mg/L, fermentation may become very sluggish and can even cease. In addition, nitrogen utilization at a lower pH is less efficient. Fermenting yeast readily use the balance of yeast assimilable nitrogen from the alpha amino acids contributed by the inactive yeast and from the di-ammonium phosphate (DAP). This balanced available nitrogen , as in Fermaid C™, has been demonstrated to be more effective on fermentation kinetics than DAP supplements alone. The cell uses the phosphorus in the di-ammonium phosphate for ATP and phospholipids.
Magnesium is an important enzyme co-factor and helps yeast develop alcohol tolerance (G. Walker 2000). Thiamine, niacin,
folic acid and calcium pantothenate (C. Edwards 2001) are important bio factors for good growth and fermentation. Thiamine
deficiencies can result in poor growth, increased hydrogen sulfide production, as well as higher levels of acetic and pyruvic
acids. Pantothenate deficiencies result in increased levels of volatile acidity.
Under the anaerobic environment of cider fermentations, the yeast cannot synthesize niacin. Under conditions of restricted oxygen, ergosterol production by the yeast is virtually non-existent; yet, it is an important growth regulator. It also improves the alcohol tolerance of the yeast. In fermenting must, inactivated yeast absorb natural inhibitors and supply lipids and sterols. The cell wall portion of the yeast contains significant amounts of polysaccharides including chitin, which increases the yeast cell surface area in the must and thus reduces the level of natural inhibitors.
In nutrient deficient juice or must
When YAN is below 125 mg/L, optimal fermentation kinetics are obtained by supplementation of an additional 100 – 200 mg/L YAN, which corresponds to 50 – 100 g/hL of DAP. Although fermentation kinetics are favorable, the cider can be bitter and harsh. In these cases supplementation of DAP with 25g/hL of Fermaid C™ will result in improved mouthfeel, balance and cider quality.
For cider applications, the recommended dose is 30-50 g/hL.
It is recommended to split the Fermaid C™ addition; half at yeast inoculation and again at 1/3rd sugar depletion, especially for juice limited in available nitrogen and high sugars.
These are some of the standard questions we are asked. If there is a specific question, please get in contact.
Fermaid C™ is a blended complex nutrient formulated for the fermentation of apple juice.
It contains mineral-enriched specific yeast derivative (including organic nitrogen), di-ammonium phosphate and vitamins (thiamine, niacin and pantothenate).
Nitrogen is a critical nutrient for efficient fermentation. It directly affects ferment dynamics, such as yeast growth and fermentation rate.
Nitrogen is present as either Inorganic or organic nitrogen.
Yeast Assimilable Nitrogen (YAN) is the nitrogen in apple must/juice that yeast are able to use i.e. assimilate.
There are numerous nitrogenous compounds found in must/juice and cider including peptides, larger proteins, amides, biogenic amines, pyridines, purines, and nucleic acids but these cannot be directly used by yeast for metabolism.
The total nitrogen content of apple must can range from 0 to 75 mg of nitrogen per liter, however not all this nitrogen will be assimilable. Thus, when we refer to YAN, we are really discussing amino acids and ammonia which can be used by yeast during the fermentation. Organic nitrogen is measured as FAN (free amino nitrogen).
YAN = Organic N (amino acids [FAN]) & Inorganic N (NH3 or NH4+)
Apples have relatively low YAN compared to other fruits. The predominant nitrogen form is amino acids; apples contain very little ammonium. The amino acid profile of apples is limited to just a few amino acids being predominant which are quickly consumed by the yeast to maintain the yeast population. This can leave the yeast struggling to finish the fermentation and produce aroma flavour compounds.
Vitamins and minerals are important for yeast cell metabolic functions – act as enzyme co-factors, involved in energy transfer and are important in cell membrane integrity.
Vitamin starvation will trigger yeast cell death in a nitrogen-dependent manner.
When yeast cells have lost their viability and vitality they struggle to complete fermentation. In addition to a stuck or sluggish fermentation there can be the development of undesirable aromas/flavours, such as hydrogen sulfide.
Loss of yeast viability and vitality can be due to numerous factors including lack of nitrogen, vitamins and minerals.